In a large bowl, cream together butter and sugars. Add eggs and vanilla extract. Beat until creamed together and fluffy, about a minute.
In a separate bowl, whisk (or sift) together the dry ingredients: flour, baking soda, cream of tartar, and salt.
Gradually stir dry ingredients into butter mixture until just combined.
Cover bowl or wrap dough in wax paper. Chill for at least 1 hour (up to 24 hours) in the refrigerator. Refrigerating will help the flavors meld and also create a firmer dough to roll into balls.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees.
Remove dough from refrigerator and allow to sit at room temperature for 10 minutes. Scoop dough using a 1.5 tablespoon scoop or shape by hand into 1.5 inch balls.
In a small bowl, combine the reserved sugar and cinnamon. Gently roll balls in sugar mixture to coat. Place cookie dough balls 2 inches apart onto a parchment lined baking sheet.
Bake for 10-12 minutes, or until lightly browned around edges. Allow to cool for 5 minutes before removing to a wire rack to cool completely.
Your cookies will keep for 5-7 days in a sealed container. To help keep cookies fresh, you can place a slice of bread in the container with the cookies. Replace the bread slice as needed.
You can keep raw cookie dough in the refrigerator for 3 days. Cookie dough balls (and baked cookies) freeze well, up to 3 months in a sealed plastic container or freezer bag. Allow frozen balls to thaw for up to 10 minutes on the baking sheet before baking, or add 1-2 minutes to the baking time.
For extra cinnamon flavor, add ½ teaspoon of cinnamon to your dry ingredients before mixing into the dough.